Located on Department of Defense-owned land near Gakona, Alaska, the facility of the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is designed for the study of the ionosphere and exploration into its potential uses in the fields of communication and surveillance (HAARP array pictured above). Funded by the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Air Force, the University of Alaska and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the facility includes 180 72-foot-tall antenna towers that transmit high-powered radio signals temporarily energizing, or heating, a portion of the ionosphere. While the government has maintained that there is nothing secretive about HAARP, there are those that believe otherwise. In his 1998 book HAARP: The Ultimate Weapon of Conspiracy, author Jerry E. Smith considered various conspiracy theories concerning the facility. Some fear that the true purpose of HAARP is to create a weapon in the form of a powerful electromagnetic beam to destroy enemy aircraft, interfere with enemy radio communications, or to wage intergalactic warfare. Others believe HAARP may be intended to control the weather, keeping third-world countries from gaining leverage by triggering earthquakes and tsunamis. Mind control, holographs in the sky and a weapon of mass destruction powerful enough to destroy the entire planet are among the other purposes of HAARP imagined by conspiracists in their accounts, such as Angels Don't Play this HAARP: Advances in Tesla Technology by Nick Begich and Jeane Manning.